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The Spitak dairy factory was opened in 1937, while the sugar factory was opened in 1947. [23], In late December the last of the survivors that were able to be extricated were pulled from the fallen buildings, rescue operations ceased, and the cleanup began, beginning with the destruction of buildings that were too heavily damaged to be repaired. The first residents of the village were Armenian migrants from the Iranian town of Khoy. An engineer with the team stated that the regulations for the area mandated that buildings be required to stand up against events measuring seven or eight on the twelve degree Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik scale. image caption Spitak, a town … Please check you have entered your email address correctly. En 2008, elle compte 15 145 habitants[1]. The complex incident ruptured multiple faults, with a strike-slip event occurring shortly after the initiation of the mainshock. The crash was blamed on the pilots' failure to properly adjust the altimeter following a miscommunication with the air traffic controllers.[33]. A branch of the Yerevan electro-technical intermediate college is also operating in the town. With Aleksandr Kuznetsov, Mkhitar Avetisyan, Martun Ghevondyan, Lernik Harutyunyan. In support of the relief effort, recording artists united to produce several music-related contributions for the victims of the quake. In 2015, Spitak had 7 public education schools, one boarding school and 7 kindergartens. [1] [15], The three cities closest to the fault rupture experienced different levels of damage. Gor is flying to Armenia from Moscow to search for his family stuck at the very epicenter of the earthquake. Officials acknowledged that the work to complete the rebuilding may take up to five years or longer, a supposition that more than doubled Gorbachev's estimate of two years. Rescue work is currently still concentrating on finding any survivors, but hope is waning in Armenia which borders Turkey and Azerbaijan. A group of French recording artists and actors came together with the French writer and composer Charles Aznavour to record the 1989 song "Pour toi Arménie" (For you Armenia). Beginning with late 1987 the Caucasus region was experiencing a surge in political turmoil with large and near constant demonstrations being held in the capital of Yerevan beginning in February 1988. The east-central segment coincided with the surface breaks between Spitak and Gekhasar, while the west-central portion's break was concealed under an anticline and was not visible at the surface. [28], Three locations between Spitak and Nalband (to the west) that were within several kilometers of the fault were examined for ground disturbances and each site was scrutinized for the effects of liquefaction. [35], The French arrived in Armenia in the late evening on Friday, December 9 and relieved the exhausted Armenian workers who then returned to Yerevan. Spitak City was entirely destroyed during the devastating earthquake in 1988, and it was rebuilt in a slightly different location with the the efforts of the state government, the Armenian diaspora, as well as with the assistance of many countries, including Uzbekistan, Switzerland, Russia, Austria, Finland, Norway, Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Estonia etc. Once there, Gor rushes through what's left from the town in search of his small house. Bruce Bolt, a seismologist and a professor of earth and planetary science at the University of California, Berkeley, walked the length of the fault scarp in 1992 and found that the vertical displacement measured 1 m (3.3 ft) along most of the length with the southwest end reaching 1.6 m (5.2 ft). The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute's team compared building damage in each city and observed similar results when comparing stone buildings four stories or less in height, but for taller frame-stone buildings, 62% were destroyed at Leninakan while only 23% collapsed at Kirovakan. Aznavour, together with Armenian-French composer Georges Garvarentz, formed a foundation called "Aznavour for Armenia" and composed the song as a call for help for the Armenians. The goal is to provide permanent housing to those still displaced by the earthquake while restoring the original city centres. The region was included within the Tashir (Armenian: Տաշիր) canton of the historic Gugark province, the 13th province of Greater Armenia. The town has a flour mill and a building materials manufacturing plant. The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake, occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X. While foreign doctors did assist with the Chernobyl incident, the Soviet relief effort after the earthquake was augmented by the largest foreign cooperation since World War II. [29], Avant-garde musician Pierre Schaeffer led a 498-member French rescue team to look for survivors in Leninakan, and worked there until all foreign personnel were asked to leave after the plan to bulldoze what was left of the ruins was formulated. [27], Buildings and other structures were extensively damaged during the earthquake, but roadways and railways also experienced disturbances. All rights reserved. Several investigations of that event took place in the 1980s and early 1990s and the primary conclusions were that a critical condition for liquefaction to occur in that type of soil was the presence of a low permeable crust that did not allow pore water pressures to subside and that the assessment method and associated standard penetration test values used with sandy soils also applied to gravelly soils. [26], The instrumentation included ten smoked paper analog seismometers that were configured to allow for 48 hours of continuous single-component data recording. The daily newspaper Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya noted that there were families living out in the open even while there were an abundance of tents available. Twelve thousand families remain displaced as a result of the earthquake after new cities, started by Moscow in 1989, have remained half-built. A second site that was close to the fault, also near the Pambak river and with similar soil deposits, did not experience liquefaction, though it would have experienced the same high peak ground accelerations as the failed highway embankment. Under the Soviet rule, Spitak became a major industrial hub in northern Armenia. The final number of people who died reached 25,000. It is dominated by the Bazum mountains from the north and Pambak mountains from the south. [41][42], The Tsaghkadzor earthquake on October 20, 1827, was centered about 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Spitak and had a maximum intensity of VIII on the Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik scale. Important: This destination may have COVID-19 travel restrictions in place, including specific restrictions for lodging. Devastating consequences. In 1937 the Hamamlu raion was established, with the village of Hamamlu as the centre of the newly formed administrative region. drama. [14], The earthquake occurred along a known 60 km (37 mi) thrust fault striking parallel to the Caucasus range and dipping to the north-northeast. Chrysler chairman Lee Iacocca arranged for a fund drive, and in Chicago (one of five major Armenian population centers in the US) the community raised $800,000 and donated 9,000 kilograms (20,000 lb) of supplies. 1988: Death toll rises in Armenian earthquake, 1961: Apartheid attacked at Nobel ceremony. The mainshock produced surface rupture and propagated to the west with a separate strike-slip sub-event occurring two seconds later that propagated to the southeast. Dân số ước tính năm 2011 là 15255 người. In December 1988, around 4,000 people were killed in Spitak as a result of the devastating earthquake. Directed by Aleksandr Kott. The area of modern-day Spitak was probably inhabited since the 4th millennium BC, based on ancient settlements found on the surrounding hills. As of the 2011 census, the population of the town is 12,881. To finish creating your account, please click the link we just sent to. The Spitak day is celebrated every year on July the 15th. [11][13], The source of the event was a fault rupture 40 kilometers (25 mi) south of the Caucasus Mountains, a mountain range that has been produced by the convergence of the Arabian and the Eurasian tectonic plates. The relationship between the Soviet authorities and the Armenian society took a turn for the worse in March and the developments climaxed in November when a state of emergency was declared, along with a nighttime curfew, and a mass movement of up to 50,000 Armenians fleeing ethnic violence arrived from Azerbaijan. Tickets for the film "Spitak" have not yet appeared on sale. Private donations and assistance from non-governmental organizations also had a large part of the international effort. The earthquake death toll was by far the highest worldwide in the 1980s[20] and third-highest worldwide in the period 1971–2003[21][22] (33 years). [5], List of twin towns and sister cities in Armenia, "Սպիտակի քույր քաղաք Սամարա քաղաքային շրջանի ղեկավար ելենա լապուշկինայի ուղերձը հայրենական մեծ պատերազմում տարած հաղթանակի առթիվ",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Armenian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 August 2020, at 14:33. Hotels in Spitak Flights to Spitak Things to do in Spitak Car Rentals in Spitak Spitak Vacation Packages. Baxter International, an American health care company with headquarters in Deerfield, Illinois, designed and built a flying medical lab set up with 20 dialysis machines to be used with victims suffering from crush syndrome (trauma associated with building collapses), but were unable to get started for four days until the visas were available. A project by the Urban Institute, policy researchers, along with its partners, the Institute for Urban Economics in Moscow and the American University of Armenia, is underway to resolve this. Spitak (en arménien Սպիտակ ) est une ville du nord de l'Arménie, située dans le marz de Lorri. Armenian Earthquake Memorial at the Red Cross Bldg in Washington, D.C. The group, including a structural engineer who specialized in seismic-resistant designs, agreed that building inadequacies were the primary reason why the strong (but not huge) earthquake was so damaging, although the freezing temperatures also played a role in the unusually high death toll. Spitak is an important hub for transportation in Armenia. One hundred and thirteen countries sent substantial amounts of humanitarian aid to the Soviet Union in the form of rescue equipment, search teams and medical supplies. In order to prevent kidney failure or death, the treatment requires prompt hospitalization, and, according to the doctor, the victims were not receiving adequate medication and dialysis and, as a result, most died before the arrival of the first foreign dialysis machines. Gor is trying to fly to Armenia from Moscow to search for his family stuck at the very epicentre of the earthquake. In pictures: 25th anniversary of Armenian earthquake,, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles containing Armenian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 June 2020, at 01:50. Gorbachev, in a TV interview several weeks after his expedited return from New York City, said that the concrete blocks had been built with more than enough sand but too little concrete, and suggested that the concrete had been stolen. [6][16], Some of the strongest shaking occurred in industrial areas with chemical and food processing plants, electrical substations, and power plants. At the Yerevan airport, western pilots reported a breakdown in air traffic control communications, with flight controllers not delivering the necessary flight navigation instructions, allowing for a critical lack of separation as foreign planes made their way into the area. After a brief Byzantine rule over Armenia between 1045 and 1064, the invading Seljuks ruled over the entire region, including Tashir. [36] Japan sent a monetary gift of $9 million while Italy had plans to build a prefabricated village for the victims, and West Germany offered to send more than a dozen heavy cranes. Mount Ararat, a 5,137 m (16,854 ft) dormant volcano, lies 100 km (62 mi) to the south of the quake's epicenter in Turkey. In a move unprecedented in the Soviet Union, the leader called for the international community to help Armenia. We need foreign assistance—and there is no doubt about that—but our friends do not know the local conditions and propose things that cannot or should not be built in an earthquake-prone region. The Soviet Union has made an appeal for medical aid requesting, in particular, blood transfusion equipment and dialysis machines. In November 1918, Hamamlu was included within the newly formed Republic of Armenia. The town is also home to a musical academy and a school of art. Buildings that didn't collapse featured well-maintained masonry and skeletal components that were joined together adequately in a way that allowed for the building to resist seismic waves. Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) [26], The epicenters of the recorded aftershocks formed a relatively narrow 50 km (31 mi) band. Fill out the form to subscribe to the newsletter for the city. Try signing in with CONNECTED_THIRD_PARTY_NAMES or use another email address. Spitak. Gor is trying to fly to Armenia from Moscow to search for his family stuck at the very epicentre of the earthquake. Russian movies in cinemas of America and Canada. FC Spitak represented the town in the domestic competitions between 1990 and 1998. The final stage concluded with seven weeks (through the end of February 1989) of continued monitoring with a reduced capacity of twenty units. Spitak has children's and youth's sport school, specialized in six types of sports: football, chess, sambo, judo, wrestling and boxing. The Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant, around 75 km (47 mi) from the epicenter, experienced only minor shaking and no damage occurred there, but was eventually closed for a period of six years due to vulnerability concerns. Medics try to help those who survived, working day and night despite the shortage of the medicine and performing surgeries with the supply on hand. In 1960, Spitak received the status of a town. In 1980, a new urban plan was approved and the sports complex of the town was opened later in 1983. The dairy products factory of 1937 was the 1st industrial firm opened in Hamamlu under the Soviet rule, followed by the sugar plant in 1947. In 1971, it became a town of republican subordination[4]. On his way, he meets various characters, each of them with his or her personal tragedy and challenge. Spitak (arménsky Սպիտակ) je město na severu provincie Lori v Arménii.Leží asi 96 kilometrů od hlavního města Jerevanu a asi 22 km západně od správního centra provincie Vanadzoru.Původní město Spitak bylo kompletně zničeno při devastujícím zemětřesení 7. prosince 1988.Nové tak bylo znovuvybudováno nedaleko od původního. [38], In February 1989 one hundred construction workers were assembling temporary housing for themselves in Leninakan with a plan to start on the local population's housing by the end of the month, though schools and factories were also on the list of facilities to be rebuilt. On the east end the events were shallow while the western side, where the majority of the larger aftershocks were concentrated, the hypocenters were up to 14 km (8.7 mi) deep. It struck three days ago at 1141 local time when children were at school and most people at work. After the Mongols captured Ani in 1236, Tashir became part of the Ilkhanate as a Mongol protectorate, and the Zakarids became vassals to the Mongols. Moving westward closer to the central segments though, a transition of the fault type was becoming apparent, where an almost equal distribution of reverse fault mechanisms were observed as the strike-slip type. [32] That deluge of western aid was a byproduct of the disaster that may have had a positive effect on Soviet Union–United States relations. Spitak is characterized with extremely cold winter and mild summer. The former Soviet Union came under heavy criticism for failing to co-ordinate rescue work and acting promptly - revealing it had no contingency plans for any disasters. Spitak (Armenian: Սպիտակ), is a town and urban municipal community in the northern Lori Province of Armenia. [24][25], The area where Armenia lies is of interest to seismologists and geologists because of the relatively early stage of continental collision occurring there and because the earthquake's strong aftershock sequence and significant surface faulting presented scientists with an environment to study reverse faulting. The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Armenian: Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ, Spitaki yerkrasharj), occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating). The town is also home to the Spitak railway station, almost midway between Yerevan and Tbilisi. [9], American businessman and philanthropist Armand Hammer, well known to the Soviet Union for his financial pursuits and humanitarian ties, left Los Angeles for Armenia on board a Boeing 727 loaded with 1,000 kg (2,300 lb) of medical supplies that were provided by the American Red Cross. Tickets for this show are sold out, but don't be discouraged! Half of those funds were from World Vision International, a California-based relief and development umbrella organization, and the other half were his own personal donation. A monument, Armenian Earthquake, expressing the appreciation of the Armenian people for assistance from the U.S. was erected in Washington, D.C. in 1990. The cities of Spitak, Leninakan (Gyumri) and Kirovakan (Vanadzor) were greatly affected with large losses of life and devastating effects to buildings and other structures. Spitak, a town of 25,000 inhabitants, has been completely destroyed and cannot be rebuilt - a new city will have to be built over the wreckage. Many remnants are found on the Sardar hill dating back to the Bronze Age. Along the western segments the fault split into two branches with one to the southwest and the other to the northwest. [9] With the hospitals destroyed, and their limited knowledge of the care requirements, the Soviets were not well-equipped to deal with the cases of crush syndrome. ", "Deaths and Injuries due to the Earthquake in Armenia – A Cohort Approach", "Lessons and questions emerge from Armenian quake", "Armenia's Metsamor NPP, Built Near Fault Line, Gets 10 Year Life Extension", "Armenia's Nuclear Risk; Antiquated Power Station to Be Reopened Despite Wide Concerns About Safety", "USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Facts and Statistics Graphs", "Earthquake Hazards Program: Largest and Deadliest Earthquakes by Year", "All the deadliest and strongest earthquakes since 1900, including coordinates", "6 Found Alive in Armenia 35 Days After Quake", "Fake News, Soviet-Style: The Armenian Earthquake Rescue That Was Too Good To Be True", "Russia 'Concerned' About Armenian Protests Of Foreign-Language Schools", "Soviet Relief Plane Crashes, Killing 78", "Yugoslav Pilots Blamed in Crash of Quake Relief Plane", "Story of Charles Aznavour's "For you Armenia, "Soviet Union: When the Earth Shook – A killer quake devastates Armenia, and the West responds with unprecedented aid", "Faucets, Not Hospitals : Armenia Aid Gets Back to the Basics", "In Armenia, Revival the American Way; U.S. Architects Plan an Earthquake-Resistant Spitak", "Out of Earthquake's Rubble Rises Soviet-U.S. Teamwork", "The Spitak (Armenia) earthquake of 7 December 1988: field observations, seismology and tectonics", "Geometry, segmentation and stress regime of the Spitak (Armenia) earthquake from the analysis of the aftershock sequence", "Earthquake of 7 December 1988, Spitak, Armenia report of the NZNSEE team visit of 1989", Earthquake Damage, the Armenian SSR, December 7, 1988, On this day – 1988: Death toll rises in Armenian earthquake, Rescue efforts underway after earthquake strikes the Soviet republic of Armenia.

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